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Torture methods have traditionally been quantified using checklists. However, checklists fail to capture accurately both the almost infinite range of available methods of torture and the victims’ subjective experience. The Torturing Environment Scale (TES) was designed as a multidimensional alternative that groups torture methods according to the specific human function under attack. This study aims to do an exploratory assessment of the internal consistency reliability and discriminatory validity of the TES as part of a construct validity assessment in a sample of Basque torture survivors.

Ficha técnica


Pau Pérez Sales, Raquel González Rubio, Blanca Mellor Marsá y Gonzalo Martínez Alés


BMC Public Health


Pérez-Sales, P., González-Rubio, R., Mellor-Marsá, B. et al. Beyond torture checklists: an exploratory study of the reliability and construct validity of the Torturing Environment Scale (TES). BMC Public Health 21, 372 (2021).

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