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Various proposals have been made in order to measure worldviews and identity in extreme trauma or loss experiences. The use of these scales has provided mixed results. The Vital Impact Assessment Scale (VIVO) was designed to fill some of the gaps of the existing tools: (a) to be administered to the general population, as well as to survivors of extreme experiences; (b) to include an extensive range of human responses to extreme situations; (c) to be administered to large population samples from different cultural backgrounds; (d) to avoid anchoring to a specific personal experience; and (e) to work with extensive and complex response profiles.

Validation data and preliminary results are presented for the Spanish version, and an English formulation is proposed. The final version of the VIVO Questionnaire, composed of 116 items, offers an organized profile divided into 10 conceptual blocks (worldviews, attitude towards the world, view of human beings, coping, impact of past situations, emotions, telling the experience, consequences, social support, and identity) and 35 subscales.

Ficha técnica


Pau Pérez Sales, Francisco José Eiroa Orosa, Pablo Olivos, Elena Barbero Val, Alberto Fernández Liria y María Vergara


Journal of Loss and Trauma


Pérez Sales,P., José-Eiroa Orosa, F., Olivos,P., Barbero Val, E., Fernández Liria, A. Vergara, M. (2012) Vivo Questionnaire: A Measure of Human Worldviews and Identity in Trauma, Crisis, and Loss—Validation and Preliminary Findings. Journal of Loss and Trauma.17 (236–259). DOI: 10.1080/15325024.2011.616828

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